General symptoms of inflammatory changes in the intestine In most cases, inflammation gives rise to signs that bother the patient and force him to go to a hospital. Bowel inflammation symptoms: Abdominal pain. Often, patients cannot accurately indicate the localization of pain, but characterize it as squeezing or bursting, not suspecting that their intestines are inflamed. As a rule, pills relieve such pain only for a short period of time. The condition resembles irritable bowel syndrome. – The appearance of nausea after eating (often this sign indicates inflammation of the small intestine or duodenum). – Vomiting after eating, indicating inflammation in the upper parts. – Bloating. This symptom indicates a lack of enzymes that are involved in the digestion process. – Stool disorders (either prolonged constipation or frequent diarrhea). – Weight loss, indicating a lack of absorption of vital substances by the intestinal walls. – Anemia arising from the inability of the affected organ to “pick up” the required amount of iron from the food entering the body. – Elevated temperature (from high to subfebrile) is a classic sign of suppurative processes in the body. According to the nature of the course, inflammatory bowel diseases are divided into acute (the disease is difficult, for a period of up to one month) and chronic (the course of the disease can be sluggish with periods of exacerbation, this period lasts up to one year). According to the localization of the suppurative process, the ailment is divided into the following diseases: – enteritis – an inflammatory process localized in the intestine, capturing both its individual part and the entire organ; – duodenitis – inflammation of the duodenum; the disease in most cases begins in the first section, where the stomach passes into the intestines; – mesenteric adenitis – inflammation of the lymph nodes, which can provoke mucosal pathologies; in most cases, suppuration occurs due to the penetration of viruses and infections; – colitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine; in most cases, inflammation affects the entire organ, but there is also suppuration in some of its parts. Causes of inflammatory diseases Pathology can be provoked by a number of reasons. The most common are: Infections – inflammation is caused by protozoa, viruses or bacteria. Most often, rotavirus, salmonella, Escherichia coli, amoebic dysentery are found in patients. – Helminthic invasions (most often this cause occurs in children). – Autoimmune disorders, in which the cells of the intestinal mucosa are perceived by the body as foreign, therefore, the production of antibodies begins, which are the cause of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. – Congenital defects in digestion. For example, a lack of certain enzymes in a parent can be genetically transmitted and found in a child. – Improper diet – abuse of fried foods, spices, sour sauces, smoked and fatty foods. – Alcoholism and tobacco smoking. – Violation of the balance of intestinal microflora, drugs that “kill” the beneficial microflora. Consider the symptoms of the most common and severe lesions – ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the large intestine or an entire organ. The disease usually develops very slowly, therefore it is detected already in a chronic form. Against the background of ulcerative colitis, patients develop bleeding ulcers that pass into the rectum. Ulcerative colitis can take the form of: – proctitis (the site of inflammation is localized in the rectum); – proctosigmoiditis (combined inflammation of the sigmoid and rectum); – left-sided colitis (inflammation of the sigmoid andcolon); – pancolitis (general defeat of the large intestine); – fulminant colitis (inflammation of the intestine with rapid necrotization of areas). The most severe form in adults is pancolitis, fulminant colitis is quite rare, but it is this form of the disease that gives the greatest mortality. Crohn’s disease A severe bowel disease with necrosis and granulomatosis is called Crohn’s disease. Pathological lesions extend not only to the intestinal mucosa, but also to tissues lying deeper. In advanced cases, the pathological process can lead to the formation of fistulas, subsequent scarring of tissues, and the appearance of adhesions. Crohn’s disease causes severe pain and frequent diarrhea. This is due to impaired absorption of nutrients. The clinical picture of Crohn’s disease is varied – from the mildest to a severe condition. Symptoms appear both suddenly and gradually. Crohn’s disease can be suspected on the following grounds: – frequent bouts of diarrhea; – cramps and pain in the abdomen; – decreased appetite; – an admixture of blood in the feces; – nausea, vomiting; sudden weight loss; the appearance of ulcers. Diagnosis of diseases Usually, after taking anamnesis, the doctor can make a preliminary diagnosis – “intestinal inflammation”, however, to clarify the picture of the disease and an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct some additional research. – Clinical blood test. As a result of a blood test, an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be established – a classic symptom for inflammatory diseases. An excess number of leukocytes is also determined. – Coprogram – a study of feces, which allows you to establish the amount of food enzymes and assess the quality of the stomach. – Bacteriological analysis of feces – a study for bacteria. With the help of this analysis, it is possible not only to identify certain pathogenic bacteria, but also to determine their sensitivity to antibiotics. – Fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy – a multifunctional study using a fiber optic system (tube with a camera and built-in lighting), which allows you to assess the state of the mucous membrane of the duodenum and stomach. If necessary, during the analysis, doctors can take a piece of tissue for a biopsy. – Colonoscopy – an analysis similar to FEGDS, however, the system is inserted through the anus and the lining of the colon is assessed. Inflammation can be diagnosed and evaluated. – Video capsule endoscopy is the most modern research method, during which the patient swallows a capsule that passes through all parts of the intestine. The information perceived by the capsule is transmitted to a special computer via radio waves and processed by the program. Thus, doctors receive all the data on the condition of the patient’s gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of intestinal inflammation The choice of therapy than to treat intestinal inflammation is based on finding out the cause of the inflammation. Depending on what caused the inflammation, the main complex of drugs is selected and a strategy is determined on how to treat the disease with the most effective medicines. To relieve intestinal inflammation, antibiotics, immunosuppressants, anthelmintics and suppositories with methyluracil are most often used. Diet is an important factor in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Patients are prohibited from eating fatty meat, smoked meats, fried foods, salty and sour foods. The food is steamed and patients are advised to follow diet 5, as for gastritis and stomach ulcers. Eating at home is better than eating fast foods. On the recommendation of a doctor, it is possible to drink herbs that relieve inflammation. To remove toxins, patients are prescribed sorbents that bind harmful substances and ensure the normal functioning of the intestines.With a lack of enzymes, such medicines are recommended: Mezim, Pancreatin, Pangrol and Creon. To relieve spasms, antispasmodics are traditionally prescribed – No-shpu, Trimedat, Spasmomen or Mebeverin. Prevention To prevent the onset of an inflammatory process in the intestine and exacerbation of chronic colitis, it is necessary to follow certain recommendations. They consist mainly in the elimination of factors provoking the development of the disease. Preventive measures are carried out depending on the causes of the inflammatory process of the intestine. Maintaining personal hygiene will help protect yourself from infectious inflammations, especially with regular hand washing. Patients should not touch common foods at all. Chronic bowel problems can be prevented by dietary nutrition. If inflammation of the intestinal tract has arisen as a result of treatment for another disease, relapse cannot be avoided. Such consequences include, for example, radiation colitis, which often begins during radiotherapy for pelvic tumors. The general prevention of inflammation in the intestines consists in a balanced diet, spa treatment, in giving up bad habits and in regular sports. We must not forget that it is better not to treat the disease, but to try to prevent it. Thanks to the information received, the symptoms can be used to determine the presence of inflammation and measures for treatment. If several specific signs are found at once, immediately contact a doctor who correctly diagnoses the problem and prescribes the best ways to treat the disease.