The main measure for the prevention of gastritis is regular nutrition, as well as restriction, or better – a complete exclusion from the diet of alcohol, excessively spicy, fatty and fried foods, as well as carbonated drinks.
The main symptoms of gastritis are: epigastric pain in the patient, which appears immediately after eating, heartburn, belching with air or eaten food. Sometimes this reaction manifests itself individually, to certain types of foods (for example, bell peppers or peas). If you find at least one of the above symptoms, you should immediately contact a qualified specialist – a therapist or gastroenterologist.
In order to make an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct a series of examinations (urine, blood). Also, the doctor, as a rule, prescribes fibrogastroduodenoscopy ( FGDS ). The study of gastric juice – ph-metry – is not necessary.
As part of the treatment of gastritis, a mandatory diet is prescribed that excludes foods that provoke the disease. Treatment is with proton pump inhibitor drugs. If there is, antacid medications are used for heartburn. If the helicobacter pylori bacterium is detected, treatment is carried out according to the eradication scheme.
As a preventive measure for gastritis, the main thing is the further adherence to the diet prescribed by the gastroenterologist. This disease has no seasonality.
The risk group includes people who abuse unhealthy food, as well as people who eat irregularly. Now the second risk group is especially relevant – because of the modern rhythm of life, you do not want to eat in the morning, usually there is no time for lunch, and in the evening a person eats up all day at once.
Dispensary observation of patients with gastritis is usually not carried out, since almost every person now has gastritis, starting from childhood. It is physically impossible to register everyone.
Peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer
The main risk factors for peptic ulcer disease are smoking and stress.
Smoking lowers the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter, which is why acidic contents are thrown, and, as a result, acidity increases.
The psychoemotional state of a person has a very great influence on the development of peptic ulcer disease. Of course, we cannot advise patients to change jobs. Therefore, in the event of constant stress in the workplace, it is necessary to see a specialist who will prescribe sedatives to reduce the level of stress.
Up to fifty years of age, men are more likely to get sick, since the estrogenic background of women protects the stomach before the onset of menopause. Very often men who have served in the army are susceptible to peptic ulcer disease. Another risk group is students who consume fast food and sugary sodas. Heredity is also of considerable importance – if one of the parents suffers from a peptic ulcer, it can be transmitted to the child.
A separate group includes people with diseases of the bronchopulmonary system.
The main symptoms of the disease are: acute pain in the epigastric region or right hypochondrium. With a stomach ulcer, it manifests itself thirty minutes after a meal, with a duodenal ulcer – after one and a half to two hours. In the latter case, hungry night pains, heartburn and vomiting are also often present, bringing relief. Both types of peptic ulcer disease are also accompanied by a violation of the excretory function – constipation.
Peptic ulcer disease has a pronounced seasonality – such patients most often get sick in spring and autumn.
The examination plan, as in the case of gastritis, includes EGD with a mandatory examination of the esophagus and a biopsy of the mucous membrane on a helicobacter. Also, an examination of the duodenum and large duodenal papilla is usually prescribed to exclude oncology. The second important stage is ph-metry. Additionally, an X-ray may be prescribed if the patient suffers from vomiting on the eve of a meal – this may be a sign of the development of pyloric stenosis.
If there is a positive reaction to helicobacter pylori, treatment is carried out according to a three- or four-way scheme. The three-part regimen includes proton pump inhibitors and two antibiotics. If the treatment fails, a breath test and a four-component regimen are prescribed: a proton pump inhibitor, a bismuth drug (De Nol), and two antibiotics.
If the diagnosis has already been made, proton pump inhibitors (for example, Omiprozole or Pantoprozole) are used as mandatory prophylaxis in spring and autumn. They are taken once a day, before dinner. In addition, risk factors such as nicotine, stress and unhealthy diet are eliminated. If a person has an ulcer, he must divide his meals five to six times a day in small portions of two hundred to three hundred grams. This is to avoid stretching the stomach, which can interfere with the healing of the ulcer.
Patients with peptic ulcer disease are shown compulsory dispensary observation. This is especially true for patients with ulcers of lesser curvature – that is, with a tendency to oncology. To prevent relapse in the future, spa treatment is actively used (mineral waters, for example, “Karachi”).